Jewish Lineal History


         

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Israel Time Line

Arranged by Matania Ginosar

(BCE - Before the Common Era) HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS of ISRAEL
17th-6th C. BCE BIBLICAL TIMES
c. 17th century The Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God - settle in the Land of Israel. Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt
c. 13th century Exodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert.

Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai.

13th-12th centuries Israelites settle the Land of Israel
c. 1020 Jewish Monarchy established; Saul, first king
c. 1000 Jerusalem made capital of David's kingdom
c. 960 First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon
c. 930 Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel
722-720 Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).

586

Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled to Babylonia
536-142 PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS
538-515 Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt

332

Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule
166-160 Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of Temple
142-129 Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.
129-63 Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.

63

Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey.
63 BCE-313 CE ROMAN RULE, 376 yrs
Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel;
(CE - Common Era) 37 BCE – 4 CE Temple in Jerusalem refurbished
c. 20-33 Ministry of Jesus

66

Jewish revolt against the Romans

70

Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.

73

Last stand of Jews at Masada.
132-135 Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.
c. 210 Codification of Jewish oral law, Mishnah, completed.
313-636 BYZANTINE RULE, 323 yrs
c. 390 Commentary on the Mishnah, the Jerusalem Talmud, completed.
70 - 632 Mohammad

614

Persian invasion
636-1099 ARAB RULE, 463 yrs

691

On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik
1099-1291 CRUSADER DOMINATION; (Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem), 192 yrs
1291-1516 MAMLUK RULE, 225 yrs
1517-1917 OTTOMAN RULE, 400 yrs

1564

Code of Jewish law, Shulhan Arukh, published.

1860

First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha'ananim, built outside Jerusalem's walls.
1882-1903 First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia.

1897

First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.
1904-14 Second Aliya, mainly from Russia and Poland.

1909

First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.

1917

British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine", the Balfour Declaration

1917

400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest
1918-48 BRITISH RULE – 30 years
1919-23 Third Aliya, mainly from Russia
Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.

1920

Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (yishuv) to conduct its affairs.

1921

First moshav, Nahalal, founded.
Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations;
Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home.

1922

Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.

1924

Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.
1924-32 Fourth Aliya, mainly from Poland.

1925

Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mt. Scopus.

1929

Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants.

1931

Etzel, (Irgun) Jewish underground organization, founded.
1933-39 Fifth Aliya, mainly from Germany.
1936-39 Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants.

1939

Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper. 100,000 maximum.
1939-45 World War II; Holocaust in Europe. British Navy curtails emigration from Europe.

1941

Lehi underground movement formed; Palmach- strike force of Haganah, set up.

1944

Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.

1947

UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land. Arabs rejected it.

1948

STATE OF ISRAEL proclaimed (14 May). 600,000 Jews in the land.
End of British Mandate (14 May)
Israel invaded by five Arab states (15 May)
War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949)

1948

Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established
Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.
Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
First Knesset (parliament) elected.

1949

Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.
1948-52 Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.

1956

Sinai Campaign against Nasser, with England and France, Pres. Eisenhower defeated it.

1962

Adolf Eichmann tried and executed in Israel for his key part in the Holocaust.

1964

National Water Carrier completed, bringing water from Lake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.

1967

Six-Day War, Jerusalem reunited.
1968-70 Egypt's War of Attrition against Israel

1973

Yom Kippur War

1975

Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.

1977

Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years of Labor rule. Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.

1978

Camp David Accords & framework for comprehensive peace in Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.
Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed.

1979

Prime Minister Menachem Begin and President Anwar Sadat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.

1981

Israel Air Force destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor just before it is to become operative.
Israel's three-stage withdrawal from Sinai completed.

1982

Operation Peace for Galilee removes PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) terrorists from Lebanon.

1984

National unity government (Likud & Labor) formed after elections. Operation Moses, Immigration of Jews from Ethiopia. Itzhak Shamir and Shimon Peres alternate PM.

1985

Free Trade Agreement signed with United States.

1987

Widespread violence (intifada) starts in Israeli-administered areas.

1988

Likud government in power following elections, Itzhak Shamir PM.
Four-point peace initiative proposed by Israel.

1989

Start of mass immigration of Jews from former Soviet Union.

1991

Israel attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles during Gulf war.
Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid;

1991

Operation Solomon, airlift of Jews from Ethiopia. President Bush major assistance.
Diplomatic relations established with China and India.

1992

New government headed by Yitzhak Rabin of Labor party.

1993

Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements for the Palestinians signed by Israel and PLO, as representative of the Palestinian people.
Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
Full diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
Morocco and Tunisia interest offices set up.
Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed.

1994

Rabin, Peres, Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in West Bank and Gaza Strip; Palestinian Council elected.
Prime Minister Rabin assassinated at peace rally.

1995

Shimon Peres becomes prime minister.
Fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel escalates.
Operation Grapes of Wrath, retaliation for Hezbollah terrorists' attacks on northern Israel.
Trade representation offices set up in Oman and Qatar.
Likud forms government after Knesset elections.
Benjamin Netanyahu becomes prime minister.

1996

Omani trade representation office opened in Tel Aviv.

1997

Hebron Protocol signed by Israel and the PA.

1998

Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary.

2000

Arafat rejects President Clinton's effort to achieve peace after generous offer by PM Barak
Arafat PA starts intensive terrorism against Israeli civilians
Summer 2005 Israel evacuates all Jewish communities in Gaza, Palestinian infighting starts; Kassam rockets from Gaza attacks Israel on regular basis.
Jan 2006 PM Sharon incapacitated by massive stroke, Olmert takes over as PM. Hamas won election
July 2006 Hezbollah war in Lebanon, massive rocket attacks on Israeli civilians in Northern Israel

~~~~~~~

from the May 2007 Edition of the Jewish Magazine

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