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Unconditional Hate: Anti-Semitism in the Contemporary World*
By Natan P.F. Kellermann © 2005
* Presented at the conference "Antisemitism in the contemporary world," Melbourne, Australia, 6-7 February 2005.
During a visit to Vienna a few years ago, I walked through the "Graben" in the middle of town. As I strolled through the open square in front of the St. Stefan Cathedral, I saw some Palestinian activists who were demonstrating for their cause, showing large signs with the well-known slogans of "Liberating Palestine!" and handing out pamphlets that described their plight. What struck me was not the demonstration in itself, but a large picture that was displayed for everyone to see. The picture depicted the corpse of a Palestinian infant with a bullet hole in his chest.
The whole scene suddenly made me feel sick. Here I was in the middle of Vienna, some 55 years after the 2nd World War, realizing that Jews again were accused of killing children. The non-verbal message of the picture was loud and clear: "Israelis are killing children. They are killing innocent children in cold blood! The Israelis
are doing it again..." I guess that this message did not fall on deaf ears among the passers-by who for centuries had been used to hearing this message, within churches all over Europe, that the Jews are killing children. After all, Jews had killed the child of God - Jesus Christ. Now they were also killing Palestinian children. It made perfect sense.
In my imagination, I could see dozens of Nazi flags all around, a large portrait of Hitler and hundred German soldiers in precise unbroken ranks holding out their arms in the familiar salute: "Sieg Heil!" The Führer would have been very pleased with the whole spectacle. His mission was not forgotten.
I was trembling with anger, trying to control my outrage and desperation. It hit me like a punch in the stomach that hatred of the Jews was still abundant in Europe, as if people had learned nothing from Auschwitz. The Austrian population was again passively allowing all this to happen in front of their eyes, and in front of the Church, and did nothing to stop it.
I suspect that my emotional response was intensified by the fact that, more than 60 years earlier, my father had barely escaped Vienna together with his family. While he was among the lucky few to survive, the Nazis had murdered the majority of European Jews. Jewish children were torn to pieces by dogs or left to starve in Ghettos and in hiding places, or were thrown alive into Birkenau's burning pits. More than 1.2 million Jewish children were murdered in the Europe of there and then. And now, half a century after the war, in the middle of Vienna, everything was turned upside down. They were accusing us of killing children! The victims were made into criminals and the criminals into victims. As an echo from the past, the eternal justification of anti-Semites to kill Jews reverberated in my head: "Die Juden sind Schuld! - The Jews are Guilty!"
All across Europe, including Austria, people collaborated with the Nazis to kill Jews. But they have not yet acknowledged that. I would expect them at least to have a moral duty to protect its few surviving Jews, whether they still live in Austria, in Israel, or elsewhere, and to ensure that no harm befalls them. Instead they call us Nazis.
From the end of the 2nd World War until recently, it was generally assumed that anti-Semitism had mostly disappeared from Western Europe. After the Holocaust, people had finally learned, we thought. We were wrong. Overt anti-Semitism has reappeared in Europe. While the memory of the Nazi Holocaust was fresh in mind, anti-Semitism was silenced. But as that memory fades, there is new growth of anti-Semitism. We had also thought that the creation of a homeland in the state of Israel would eliminate anti-Semitism once-and-for-all, and that Israel would transform the Jews into a "normal" people who live among themselves as the majority rather than among the Gentiles as strangers and as a minority of rootless cosmopolitans.
However, while the State of Israel has given Jews a margin of physical safety, it has not erased anti-Semitism. The opposite seems to be true. Jews are not only hated for what they do outside Israel, but especially for what they do in the Holy Land and anti-Semitism is now being nurtured in a general climate of antagonism against the Jewish state and everything connected to it. Now we are hated, not despite of the fact that we have a homeland, but because we have it and because what we do in order to live in it and defend it.
One would have to be blind, deaf and dumb not to recognize that this hate of Israel is profoundly anti-Semitic. Such hostile sentiments, sometimes disguised as a 'legitimate' critique of Israeli politics, has been called the "new" anti-Semitism. I will here try to further describe its manifestations, to explore its roots in the old hatred of Jews, and to discuss some ways of responding to this alarming phenomenon.
"New" anti-Semitism preaches hatred, not only against Jews, but also against Israel.
It is therefore not surprising that it's main proponents come from the Arab world. Inspired by Nazi propaganda, Arab media is spreading the message that the "Zionist Jew" is trying to conquer, not only Palestine, but also the entire world. As a result, about 200 million Arabs may be assumed to harbor such an intense grudge that they are presently motivated to inflict actual harm to Jews. Another billion Muslims might not become violent but they don't like us. Considering that there are only about 14 million Jews worldwide and 6 million Jews in Israel, the proportions are staggering.
While the most intense hatred certainly comes from the Arab World and Islam, this "new" anti-Semitism is also spreading rapidly in Europe. In recent opinion polls, the general populations of France, England, Holland and many countries of Eastern Europe have clearly expressed their negative sentiments against Israelis and Jews in general. For example, Israel was perceived as the greatest threat to world peace by a majority of European countries in a recent EU study. In addition, the European Union in itself has clearly been biased in its treatment of the Middle East conflict, seeing Israel as the villain and Palestine as the victim of oppression.
As a result, Jews cannot feel completely safe in Europe anymore. This can be exemplified by the security instructions that were given to participants of the European Council of Jewish Communities meeting in Budapest in May 2004, with the title: "We are a part of Europe." Under the heading of how to behave outside the well-guarded conference hotel, it was recommended: "Don't show that you are a Jew." This recommendation was suggested, because it has become a health hazard to walk around with any overt sign of being Jewish in many parts of Central Europe.
As the hate of Israel intensifies, so does the hate of Jews in Europe. Memorials and tombstones are destroyed or desecrated; synagogues, schools, and community centers are attacked and machine gun police guard Jewish institutions at all times. Anyone browsing the Internet can easily find numerous web-pages and discussion groups, such as 'stormfront.org' and 'exterminance.org' that have as its main function to spread lies about Jews and to throw dirt on Israel.
A strange mixture of people and organizations are involved in this "new" anti-Semitism. They do not only come from the pro-Palestinian camp and from Islam, but also from the radical left and extreme right. Radical leftist groups who protest against the US Colonialism, Globalization, and the Western capitalist civilization in general have joined up with extreme rightist groups of neo-Nazis, Holocaust deniers, skinhead activists, racists and xenophobes who all share the common bond of Jew hatred.
These "new" anti-Semites make no differentiation between Jews in general and Israelis in particular. For them, Jews and Israelis all represent the ultimate Zionist evil, which should be destroyed at all cost. Much of such anti-Israeli sentiments came to a violent outburst during the World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa, in September 2001, which tried to de-legitimatize Israel by equalizing Zionism with Racism. The fanatic pro-Palestinian terrorist camp certainly does not make any distinctions between Zionists and anti-Zionists, between those who are for or against P.M. Ariel Sharon, or between the right and the left in Israel.
People from all such political fractions travel in buses and they are all are exposed to the same threat of being blown up. What is most surprising, however, is that such terrorists also attack Jewish institutions outside Israel who one would think would comply with their vision of a Palestine without Jews. This non-differentiation between hating Jews in Israel (either in central Israel or in the occupied territories), or Jews who live outside Israel, is the main evidence for the blurring of anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism among such people.
According to Natan Sharansky, anti-Zionism becomes de facto "new anti-Semitism" and not legitimate criticism of Israel, if it fails the "3D" test: (1) If Israelis are seen as Nazis and Palestinian refugee camps as concentration camps (demonization). (2) If Israel is criticized for human rights abuses while other nations with similar actions are not (discrimination and double standards). And, (3) if the right of Israel to exist is denied (deligitimization).
Thus, the difference between a leftist pro-Palestinian activist, who wants to get rid of the Jews in Israel, and a neo-Nazi, who wants to get rid of the Jews everywhere else, is purely academic. Both think that Jews should be deprived of certain rights, be kept out of certain economic, social and political positions, be expelled from their country, and, finally, be eliminated. Such views have deep roots in the "classical" hatred of Jews that has been the destiny of the Chosen People for centuries.
The Old anti-Semitism
The old anti-Semitism with its pervasive animosity towards Jews seems to be more than a personal opinion or an attitude. It also involves a strong emotional and physiological arousal, similar to its opposite "love." But instead of attraction, anti-Semites feel repulsion and disgust, almost as if they have an allergic reaction to Jews. In such a 'Judeo-phobic' response, the anti-Semite would say: "I do not really know why, but I detest the Jew and everything that has to do with Judaism and Israel!" If nurtured, this repulsion may develop into a complete worldview and a persistent belief system around the evil nature of the Jews.
No reasoning helps to persuade the anti-Semite about his or her biased conceptions of Jews. Like a religious faith that cannot be argued rationally, anti-Semites do not question their prejudices. Even though they might never have had any direct contact with Jews, they are convinced of the correctness of their perceptions and assume that others will perceive Jews in the same way.
For example, an Austrian anti-Semitic elderly woman was convinced that Jews have green blood. She could not be persuaded that this was untrue. When a Jew, in order to disprove her preconception, stuck himself in the finger and extracted red blood, she exclaimed: "Yes, I see that you have red blood like everybody else, but then you cannot be a real Jew
Reasons for anti-Semitism
Various theories have been suggested to explain such persistent antipathy against Jews. Here, I will shortly discuss five of the most common reasons for anti-Semitism that has surfaced in different guises throughout history. Jews are hated because
1. They are the cause of all misfortunes,
2. They possess too much wealth and power,
3. They arrogantly claim supremacy of other peoples,
4. They killed Jesus, and
5. They are different and inferior.
The first reason deals with blaming the Jew for all that is bad in society (crises, wars, famines, upheavals, revolts, etc.). All such events are directly or indirectly seen as the fault of the Jew.
According to Sartre (1946), the anti-Semite is convinced that 'all or part of his own misfortune and those of his country are due to "Jewish elements" in the community.' (Note 1) This 'scapegoat theory' is a central element in all anti-Semitic belief systems: Jews are guilty for everything bad. For example, in 1348, Jews were put on trial, accused of poisoning the wells that caused the black Plague. Much later, between the First and the Second World Wars, Jews were blamed for World War I, the Treaty of Versailles, the Soviet takeover in Russia, the economic depression, for the black market, the unpredictable weather, etc. More recently, Jews and/or Israel are guilty for global terrorism, for 9/11 and for all the recent wars in the Middle East. "Without the Jews, things would have been better," they say. "It is common wisdom. Everybody knows that this is so." In fact, some even went so far as to blame the Jews for causing the 'Tsunami Disaster' in South East Asia in 2004.
The second reason states that the Jews possess too much wealth and power. This 'economic' theory of anti-Semitism postulates that Jewish wealth and power arouses the envy of other people, and this in turn leads to anti-Semitism. Ever since the laws that barred Jews from almost all activity besides finance, the Jews have been stereotyped as avaricious, greedy and obsessed by money and power.
Shakespeare's Shylock, the Jewish moneylender in the Merchant of Venice, is perhaps the most well known archetype of this stereotypic view of the rich Jew. However, it is still reinforced in theatres, new films and in the media all over the world.
The third reason is a reaction to the Jews claiming to be the 'Chosen People.' In this 'conspiracy' theory, anti-Semites say that Jews arrogantly claim supremacy of other peoples and that the Jews are conspiring to destroy the 'White Race.' The anti-Semites who hold this view believe that organized Jewry has pursued a vicious agenda to get incredible power to dominate the world, especially by being in control of the news and entertainment media. Such anti-Semites frequently quote from the fictional "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" to give credibility to their lies.
The fourth reason is the age-old biblical gospel of Jews killing Jesus Christ. For centuries, children in Europe were shouting 'God-killer' at the Jews. That was what they were taught. It was in their blood and lies at the heart of the Jewish history of Europe from the day Jews first set foot there. This 'deicide' theory fuelled two millennia of European anti-Semitism. Recently, Mel Gibson's film 'The Passion of the Christ,' has reawakened anti-Semitism based on this idea. Such sentiments are buried deep down in the collective unconscious of many Christians, even though Vatican II (1962-1965) stopped teaching this narrative and Pope John XXIII wrote a prayer of atonement for all the Jewish suffering caused in the name of Jesus: "Forgive us the curse which we unjustly laid on the name of the Jews
" Nevertheless, many Christian congregations continue to preach this narrative, including the repeated preposterous lie about Jews using Christian blood for their religious rituals.
The fifth and final reason for hating Jews is that they are seen as different. This 'xenophobic' theory argues that Jews do not belong in Western society because they are "foreigners,' 'outsiders' and 'strangers.' Apparently, this kind of hate is not only focused on Jews as such, but is based on general racism and prejudice, present in various degrees in all societies; anybody who is different is also inferior and should be driven out, including foreign workers, immigrants, and other minorities. In order to withstand this last form of prejudice, and not to be seen as strangers by their fellow-citizens, Theodore Herzl (1896) observed how Jews tried to blend in and become more assimilated in the societies in which they lived.
"Jews try to do so much, not to be hated, but it doesn't matter what they do. We have honestly endeavored everywhere to merge ourselves in the social life of surrounding communities and to preserve the faith of our fathers. We are not permitted to do so. In vain are we loyal patriots, our loyalty in some places running to extremes; in vain do we make the same sacrifices of life and property as our fellow-citizens; in vain do we strive to increase the fame of our native land in science and art, or her wealth by trade and commerce. In countries where we have lived for centuries we are still cried down as strangers. And often by those whose ancestors were not yet domiciled in the land where Jews had already had experience of suffering. The majority may decide which are the strangers; for this, as indeed every point, which arises in the relations between nations, is a question of might. ... If we could only be left in peace. But I think we shall not be left in peace." (Note 2.)
The Jewish Response
Many of the above mentioned reasons for anti-Semitism are no longer relevant in today's Europe. First of all, fewer than 2 million Jews still live in Europe and most Gentiles simply have no personal contact with them. Secondly, the secular trend has made religious anti-Semitism irrelevant. Thirdly, people in general are better educated and too aware of the history of the 2nd World War to believe in all the lies about Jews. Fourthly, there is less competition from Jewish intellectuals than before and because of the improved financial situation in Europe Jews are no longer a privileged group to be envied. Finally, racial prejudice is more dominant against immigrant foreigners who are seen as more different and strange than against assimilated Jews, who look, speak and behave like everybody else. What remains are the old stereotypes of the alleged Jewish control of mass media and global conspiracy, lately reinforced by the anti-Zionism described above.
In addition, while these theories seem to be sufficient justification for many people to hate Jews, they do not withstand logical reasoning. Some of them even seem to be preposterous in light of common sense and factual knowledge. For example, why would Jews initiate misfortunes that hurt themselves as much as anybody else? How can the Jews be ascribed with a bewildering variety of diametrically opposed and even contradictory roles at the same time? How can the Jew be described, both as a parasitic capitalist and a revolutionary socialist, an internationalist and a 'localist,' and a religious fanatic and an atheist? And if Jews had so much power, would they not have been able to prevent the Holocaust and all the recent condemnations of Israel? And what kind of justice system can accuse Jews today for the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth over two thousand years ago? Finally, if Jews are hated because of being strangers, why were not assimilated Jews spared Nazi persecution?
Because the truth is that none of these reasons really made any difference for the anti-Semite.
Jews would be good or bad, behave like everybody else or behave differently, and be assimilated or traditional. It didn't matter. Whatever they did, whether for good or bad, was quite beside the point as far as Jew-haters were concerned. The efforts of Jews to adapt to the cultures and norms of their host societies did not make them more accepted and welcome. No amount of Jewish charity would erase the charge of Jewish greed.
The hate seems to be an irrational phenomenon that defies rational explanation. It is hate 'per se' 'in itself' or 'unconditional hate.'
When hate is present with such intensity but without a reason, it can be named 'unconditional hate.'
As in unconditional love, there are no strings attached to such an emotion and nothing is expected in return. It is not dependent on what the other person does, but what he or she is. As a mother who loves her child, even if it misbehaved, the anti-Semite hates the Jew even if he or she behaved well. And as a mother who believes that there is something inherently good in her child worth loving, the anti-Semite is convinced that there is something inherently bad in the Jew that justifies 'unconditional hate.'
The Ultimate Evil
In the minds of anti-Semites all through history, Jews represented the essence of everything evil. For Christians, the Jew became a unique, mythic creature similar to the anti-Christ. During the middle Ages, superstitious people saw in all historic events the signs of the presence of evil powers, and then made elaborate fabrications, claiming that the Jew was being affiliated with witches and demons who brought death and destruction to the community. Thus, when a catastrophe actually occurred, the Jews were singled-out as the cause of the destruction and people would take revenge.
In addition, most societies saw Jews as wicked pariah and social outcasts, at the lowest level of the social hierarchy. Jews are still perceived in this manner by neo-Nazis and rightwing extremist groups in the Western world. For example, in a recent chat room at 'stormfront.org', a pseudonym described the Jew as a parasite, "someone who is living within another organism, and is dependent on something else for his existence without being useful
Another contributor associated the Jew to the legendary Dr. Frankenstein: "Jews don't necessarily try to do what they're doing. They are just genetically engineered that way. They can't help themselves. Their subculture is set up so that those who are the most paranoid and destructive have no contact with Gentiles at all, but are the advisors to those who go out and implement their destructive strategies. It's almost like a mad scientist who takes out his vengeance on the world via his various Frankenstein monsters (Dr. Frankenstein was a Jew, no doubt)."
Such derogatory conceptions of Jews as belonging to a subhuman race, or as even as some noxious vermin or lice, would justify their total extermination with the strongest insecticide available.
Reflecting on all of this makes me wonder if I am exaggerating. Do people really hate us so much? Perhaps it is only a part of my fantasy? Or, even worse; have I become paranoid? Or, is this heightened sensitivity to anti-Semitism another sign of me being a child of Holocaust survivors?
I wish it were so. I wish that I was only exaggerating and that the people, who hate us, if they at all exist, are so few, and so deranged that they do not pose any real threat to our existence. But I really do not know. We were wrong in the past, and I realize that 'being paranoid does not exclude the possibility of people still wanting to hurt us.' The signs of danger are all around, and I cannot close my eyes and look the other way.
Our history taught us that large-scale annihilation of Jews is really possible. The Crusaders, Cossacks, and the Nazis persecuted and slaughtered us by the millions. We would ask for mercy but finally do as we were told.
But this time it is different. Now, we refuse to accept this scenario. We resist. We feel that we have a right to exist. We have a right to live in Israel and elsewhere.
In January 2005, for the first time in its history, the United Nations marked the 60TH anniversary of the liberation of Nazi death camps. Survivors and foreign dignitaries, including German and Israeli foreign ministers addressed the United Nations General Assembly in an impressive official remembrance ceremony for the more than 6 million people killed during the Holocaust. The motion to hold the observance was backed by nearly 150 of the world body's 191 members. It was sponsored by the United States, Israel, the European Union, Russia, Canada, Australia and New Zealand and took place three days before a state ceremony in Poland at the site of the infamous Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp, where more than 1 million people - most of them Jews - were killed. 30 years after the UN adopted a resolution branding Zionism a "form of racism," the special session represents a significant event in Holocaust commemoration. Holocaust survivors generally felt it as an acknowledgement that the world at last has started to listen to them.
But for others, it was an insignificant gesture in the wake of the violent anti-Semitism that has targeted the Jewish People and the State of Israel during the course of the last three years and which have reached an intensity that has not been seen since the end of World War II. Apparently, mankind is still far from absorbing the lessons from the Holocaust and the civilized world still refuses to condone genocides in Bosnia, Rwanda and in Darfur. In addition, among the 41 speeches delivered during the event, only five mentioned Israel, the country which has provided a new home to most Holocaust survivors after the war and which is the only homeland of the Jewish people. In my view, without affirming the right of the Jewish State of Israel to exist and to provide a safe place for survivors, the Holocaust commemoration event lost much of its significance.
Throughout the event, the words "never again" were repeated many times. For example, German Chancellor Schroeder assured us that "never again should anti-Semites succeed in haunting and hurting Jewish citizens in Germany." But attacks and threats against Jews all over Europe are occurring on a regular basis and Jewish institutions in Berlin and elsewhere have to be protected by armed guards. The words "never again" have become irrelevant and it rather seems that it does happen "again and again and again".
In fact, we live in more dangerous times than ever.
There has been a significant increase in antagonism against Jews, which has reached proportions not seen for many years. While these times are different from the 1930s, there are certain similarities to the pre-Holocaust era. For example, the first stage of this process involved persistent agitation, mass communication and mobilization of the public opinion against Jews. Hitler was an expert in spreading lies about the Jews and to communicate these in a way that reached the masses. He fed into the old Christian prejudice about the Jews and played with primitive emotions of fear of evil powers in the average citizen. Similarly, Muslims all over the world are fed with Nazi-propaganda about the evil intentions of Jews and Israel. For example, a top Palestinian Authority official recently insisted that Israel has no right to exist because it is "Satan's offspring," founded on theft and racism. And, in the 2003 summit of Islamic leaders, Malaysian Prime Minister Mohammad said: "The Europeans killed six million Jews out of 12 million, but today the Jews rule the world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them. They have now gained control of the most powerful countries and this tiny community has become a world power." The audience stood up in vocal consent.
Another example of how such "blind hate" is instigated towards the Jews is an Iranian TV drama series with the name "For you, Palestine" or "Zahra's Blue Eyes." The fictional story describes how Israelis are stealing the blue eyes of Palestinian children in order to implant them into Jewish children. The vicious plot is effectively stirring up primitive hate against Jews. Because of the characters chosen, such hate does not remain passive and indifferent, but passionate and violent, demanding a bloody revenge. Indeed, the father of Zahra promises to take revenge, not only for his daughter, but for the crimes instigated against the entire Palestinian people. A sad consequence of this TV-series is that it has cast doubts over a humanitarian Israeli project, that for years has provided poor infants from all over the world (including Arab countries) with acute heart surgery, and saved many lives as a result. Instead of allowing such a project to become a "bridge-builder" between ordinary people in the Middle East, the TV-series has infected it with suspicion and transformed good will into hate.
Lately, the hate propaganda against Israel and the Jews from the Arab world has become very intense and dangerous. The masses of Hisbullah soldiers who are marching together while shouting anti-Israel slogans reminds me of the public manifestations against Jews of the Hitler-Jugend before the 2nd World War, transformed into Einsatzgruppen (special Nazi mobile killing units), after the war. Any Jew who enters into their midst would surely be immediately lynched.
However, while the threat of anti-Semitism and terrorism are certainly serious enough, the nuclear program of Iran is surely the most dangerous for Israel. Iran has a sophisticated program to develop weapons of mass destruction, has test-fired missiles with sufficient range to hit Israel and probably already has at least some nuclear warheads.
What to do?
So, what can we do? How can we respond? Should we choose to fight or flight?
For one thing, we should not take these threats lightly. While it is improbable that we during our lifetimes will again experience the total and universal destruction that happened in Europe during the first half of the last Century, and which made the Holocaust possible, the signs are alarming. Today, there is no excuse for 'not knowing'. It is no secret that Jew-haters exist and that they have malicious intent. Anti-Semites, from 'Haman to Hamas,' were dangerous in the past and they are still dangerous in the present.
Thus, we need to continue to monitor the occurrence of anti-Semitism all over the world, from overt acts of violence to covert expressions of Jew-hatred in the media and on the Internet. With this knowledge, we can voice our protests and try to influence public opinion and policy makers, locally, regionally and internationally. While we may not be able to reform the 'hard-core' haters directly, we must inform ordinary and decent people that this is happening again, so that they do not remain passive bystanders who claim not to know, this time around.
On June 21, 2004, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated that "It is hard to believe that 60 years after the tragedy of the Holocaust, anti-Semitism is once again rearing its head. But it is clear that we are witnessing an alarming resurgence of these phenomena in new forms and manifestations. This time the world must not, cannot, be silent." Anan then asked U.N. member states to adopt a resolution to fight anti-Semitism, and stated that the UN's Commission on Human Rights must study and expose anti-Semitism in the same way that it fights bias against Muslims. Anan correctly asked: "Are not Jews entitled to the same degree of concern and protection [as other people]?"
Less than a year later, at the commemoration ceremony of the liberation of Auschwit in January of 2005, Annan added that new generations born after the war must not grow up unaware of the lessons of the Holocaust so that future generations can learn from them: "The founding of this organization was a direct response to the Holocaust. Our charter, and the words 'untold sorrow,' were written as the world was learning the full horror of the death camps," Annan said. "The evil that destroyed six million Jews and others in those camps is one that still threatens all of us today," he added. "It is not something we can consign to the distant past and forget about it. Every generation must be on its guard, to make sure that such a thing never happens again."
Note 1. Sartre, J-P. (1946) Anti-Semite and Jew (Original: Reflexions sur la Question Juive). New York: Schocken Books.
Note 2. Herzl, T. (1896)The Jewish State An Attempt at a Modern Solution of the Jewish Question, ed. Jacob M. Alkow, New York: American Zionist Emergency Council.
About the Author
Natan P.F. Kellermann is a clinical psychologist and psychodramatist living in Israel. Until 2004, he was the executive director of Amcha, the National Israeli Center for Psychosocial Support of Holocaust Survivors and their Families. Author of Focus on Psychodrama and co-editor of Psychodrama with trauma survivors. Further information at http://peterfelix.tripod.com/home/.
from the April 1999 Edition of the Jewish Magazine
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